fileserver - Initializes the File Server component of the dafs process
fileserver [-auditlog [<path to log file> | yes | on]] [-audit-interface (file | syslog | sysvmq)] [-debug <debug level>] [-spare <number of spare blocks>] [-pctspare <percentage spare>] [-b <buffers>] [-l <large vnodes>] [-s <small vnodes>] [-vc <volume cachesize>] [-cb <number of call backs>] [-banner] [-novbc] [-implicit <admin mode bits: rlidwka>] [-readonly] [-hr <number of hours between refreshing the host cps>] [-busyat <redirect clients when queue > n>] [-nobusy] [-rxpck <number of Rx extra packets>] [-rxdbg] [-rxmaxmtu <bytes>] [-rxbind] [-allow-dotted-principals] [-L] [-S] [-k <stack size>] [-realm <Kerberos realm name>] [-udpsize <size of socket buffer in bytes>] [-sendsize <size of send buffer in bytes>] [-abortthreshold <abort threshold>] [-enable_peer_stats] [-enable_process_stats] [-syslog [< loglevel >]] [-mrafslogs] [-saneacls] [-help] [-vhandle-setaside <fds reserved for non-cache io>] [-vhandle-max-cachesize <max open files>] [-vhandle-initial-cachesize <fds reserved for non-cache io>] [-vattachpar <number of volume attach threads>] [-m <min percentage spare in partition>] [-ignore-state] [-vhashsize <log(2) of number of volume hash buckets>] [-vlrudisable] [-vlruthresh <minutes before eligibility for soft detach>] [-vlruinterval <seconds between VLRU scans>] [-vlrumax <max volumes to soft detach in one VLRU scan>] [-unsafe-nosalvage] [-offline-timeout <timeout in seconds>] [-offline-shutdown-timeout <timeout in seconds>] [-sync <sync behaviour>] [-logfile <log file] [-config <configuration file]
The fileserver command initializes the File Server component of the
In the conventional configuration,
its binary file is located in the /usr/libexec/yfs directory on a file server machine.
The fileserver command is not normally issued at the command shell prompt,
but rather placed into a database server machine's /etc/yfs/server/BosConfig file with the bos create command.
If it is ever issued at the command shell prompt,
the issuer must be logged onto a file server machine as the local superuser
The File Server creates the /var/log/yfs/FileLog log file as it initializes, if the file does not already exist. It does not write a detailed trace by default, but the -d option may be used to increase the amount of detail. Use the bos getlog command to display the contents of the log file.
The command's arguments enable the administrator to control many aspects of the File Server's performance, as detailed in "OPTIONS". By default the File Server sets values for many arguments that are suitable for a medium-sized file server machine. To set values suitable for a small or large file server machine, use the -S or -L flag respectively. The following list describes the parameters and corresponding argument for which the File Server sets default values, and the table below summarizes the setting for each of the three machine sizes.
The maximum number of lightweight processes (LWPs) or pthreads the File Server uses to handle requests for data; corresponds to the -p argument. The File Server always uses a minimum of 32 KB of memory for these processes.
The maximum number of directory blocks the File Server caches in memory; corresponds to the -b argument. Each cached directory block (buffer) consumes 2,092 bytes of memory.
The maximum number of large vnodes the File Server caches in memory for tracking directory elements; corresponds to the -l argument. Each large vnode consumes 292 bytes of memory.
The maximum number of small vnodes the File Server caches in memory for tracking file elements; corresponds to the -s argument. Each small vnode consumes 100 bytes of memory.
The maximum volume cache size, which determines how many volumes the File Server can cache in memory before having to retrieve data from disk; corresponds to the -vc argument.
The maximum number of callback structures the File Server caches in memory; corresponds to the -cb argument. Each callback structure consumes 16 bytes of memory.
The maximum number of Rx packets the File Server uses; corresponds to the -rxpck argument. Each packet consumes 1544 bytes of memory.
The default values are:
Parameter (Argument) Small (-S) Medium Large (-L) --------------------------------------------------------------------- Number of LWPs (-p) 6 9 128 Number of cached dir blocks (-b) 70 90 120 Number of cached large vnodes (-l) 200 400 600 Number of cached small vnodes (-s) 200 400 600 Maximum volume cache size (-vc) 200 400 600 Number of callbacks (-cb) 20,000 60,000 64,000 Number of Rx packets (-rxpck) 100 150 200
To override any of the values, provide the indicated argument (which can be combined with the -S or -L flag).
The amount of memory required for the File Server varies. The approximate default memory usage is 751 KB when the -S flag is used (small configuration), 1.1 MB when all defaults are used (medium configuration), and 1.4 MB when the -L flag is used (large configuration). If additional memory is available, increasing the value of the -cb and -vc arguments can improve File Server performance most directly.
By default, the File Server allows a volume to exceed its quota by 1 MB when an application is writing data to an existing file in a volume that is full. The File Server still does not allow users to create new files in a full volume. To change the default, use one of the following arguments:
Set the -spare argument to the number of extra kilobytes that the File Server allows as overage. A value of
0 allows no overage.
Set the -pctspare argument to the percentage of the volume's quota the File Server allows as overage.
By default, the File Server implicitly grants the
a (administer) and
l (lookup) permissions to system:administrators on the access control list (ACL) of every directory in the volumes stored on its file server machine. In other words, the group's members can exercise those two permissions even when an entry for the group does not appear on an ACL. To change the set of default permissions, use the -implicit argument.
The File Server maintains a host current protection subgroup (host CPS) for each client machine from which it has received a data access request. Like the CPS for a user, a host CPS lists all of the Protection Database groups to which the machine belongs, and the File Server compares the host CPS to a directory's ACL to determine in what manner users on the machine are authorized to access the directory's contents. When the pts adduser or pts removeuser command is used to change the groups to which a machine belongs, the File Server must recompute the machine's host CPS in order to notice the change. By default, the File Server contacts the Protection Server every two hours to recompute host CPSs, implying that it can take that long for changed group memberships to become effective. To change this frequency, use the -hr argument.
The File Server stores volumes in partitions. A partition is a filesystem or directory on the server machine that is named
/vicepXX where XX is "a" through "z" or "aa" though "iv". Up to 255 partitions are allowed. The File Server expects that the /vicepXX directories are each on a dedicated filesystem. The File Server will only use a /vicepXX if it's a mountpoint for another filesystem, unless the file
/vicepXX/AlwaysAttach exists. A partition will not be mounted if the file
/vicepXX/NeverAttach exists. If both
/vicepXX/NeverAttach are present, then
/vicepXX/AlwaysAttach wins. The data in the partition is a special format that can only be access using OpenAFS commands or an OpenAFS client.
The File Server generates the following message when a partition is nearly full:
No space left on device
This command does not use the syntax conventions of the AFS command suites. Provide the command name and all option names in full.
The strategy used by the File Server for attaching AFS volumes at startup and handling volume salvages attaches volumes only on demand, salvaging them at that time as needed, and detaches volumes that are not in use. The File Server can also save state to disk for faster restarts. These should not cause any issues in normal use.
Do not use the -k and -w arguments. Changing them from their default values can result in unpredictable File Server behavior. In any case, on many operating systems the File Server uses native threads rather than the LWP threads, so using the -k argument to set the number of LWP threads has no effect.
Do not specify both the -spare and -pctspare arguments. Doing so causes the File Server to exit, leaving an error message in the /var/log/yfs/FileLog file.
Options that are available only on some system types, such as the -m and -lock options, appear in the output generated by the -help option only on the relevant system type.
Currently, the maximum size of a volume quota is 2 terabytes (2^41 bytes) and the maximum size of a /vicepX partition on a fileserver is 2^64 kilobytes.
The maximum number of directory entries is 64,000 if all of the entries have names that are 15 octets or less in length. A name that is 15 octets long requires the use of only one block in the directory. Additional sequential blocks are required to store entries with names that are longer than 15 octets. Each additional block provides an additional length of 32 octets for the name of the entry. Note that if file names use an encoding like UTF-8, a single character may be encoded into multiple octets.
In real world use, the maximum number of objects in an AFS directory is usually between 16,000 and 25,000, depending on the average name length.
Turns on audit logging, and optionally sets the path for the audit log. The audit log records information about RPC calls, including the name of the RPC call, the host that submitted the call, the authenticated entity (user) that issued the call, the parameters for the call, and if the call succeeded or failed. If no path is specified, /var/log/yfs/FileAuditLog is used.
Specifies what audit interface to use. The
file interface writes audit messages to the file passed to -auditlog. The
sysvmq interface writes audit messages to a SYSV message (see msgget(2) and msgrcv(2)). The message queue the
sysvmq interface writes to has the key
ftok(path, 1), where
path is the path specified in the -auditlog option. The
syslog interface writes audit messages to the syslog(1) facility. The
path provided is used as the syslog ident.
Sets the detail level for the debugging trace written to the /var/log/yfs/FileLog file. Provide one of the following values, each of which produces an increasingly detailed trace:
125. The default value of
0 produces only a few messages.
Specifies the number of additional kilobytes an application can store in a volume after the quota is exceeded. Provide a positive integer; a value of
0 prevents the volume from ever exceeding its quota. Do not combine this argument with the -pctspare argument.
Specifies the amount by which the File Server allows a volume to exceed its quota, as a percentage of the quota. Provide an integer between
99. A value of
0 prevents the volume from ever exceeding its quota. Do not combine this argument with the -spare argument.
Sets the number of directory buffers. Provide a positive integer.
Sets the number of large vnodes available in memory for caching directory elements. Provide a positive integer.
Sets the number of small vnodes available in memory for caching file elements. Provide a positive integer.
Sets the number of volumes the File Server can cache in memory. Provide a positive integer.
Prints the following banner to /dev/console about every 10 minutes.
File Server is running at I<time>.
Prevents the File Server from breaking the callbacks that Cache Managers hold on a volume that the File Server is reattaching after the volume was offline (as a result of the vos restore command, for example). Use of this flag is strongly discouraged.
This option slightly changes the error codes reported to clients when an unattached volume is accessed by a client during fileserver startup.
There is usually no reason to use this option under normal operation.
Defines the set of permissions granted by default to the system:administrators group on the ACL of every directory in a volume stored on the file server machine. Provide one or more of the standard permission letters (
rlidwka) and auxiliary permission letters (
ABCDEFGH), or one of the shorthand notations for groups of permissions (
write). To review the meaning of the permissions, see the fs setacl reference page.
Do not permit writes to this fileserver.
Specifies how often the File Server refreshes its knowledge of the machines that belong to protection groups (refreshes the host CPSs for machines). The File Server must update this information to enable users from machines recently added to protection groups to access data for which those machines now have the necessary ACL permissions.
Defines the number of incoming RPCs that can be waiting for a response from the File Server before the File Server returns the error code
VBUSY to the Cache Manager that sent the latest RPC. In response, the Cache Manager retransmits the RPC after a delay. This argument prevents the accumulation of so many waiting RPCs that the File Server can never process them all. Provide a positive integer. The default value is
Controls the number of Rx packets the File Server uses to store data for incoming RPCs that it is currently handling, that are waiting for a response, and for replies that are not yet complete. Provide a positive integer.
Writes a trace of the File Server's operations on Rx packets to the file /var/log/yfs/rx_dbg.
Defines the maximum size of an MTU. The value must be between the minimum and maximum packet data sizes for Rx.
Force the fileserver to only bind to one IP address.
By default, the RXKAD security layer will disallow access by Kerberos principals with a dot in the first component of their name. This is to avoid the confusion where principals user/admin and user.admin are both mapped to the user.admin PTS entry. Sites whose Kerberos realms don't have these collisions between principal names may disable this check by starting the server with this option.
Specifies a list of one or more Kerberos realm names used by the File Server for local authentication. When provided, this argument overrides any realm names listed in the optional /etc/yfs/server/krb.conf file.
Sets the size of the UDP buffer, which is 64 KB by default. Provide a positive integer, preferably larger than the default.
Sets the size of the send buffer, which is 16384 bytes by default.
Sets the abort threshold, which is triggered when an AFS client sends a number of FetchStatus requests in a row and all of them fail due to access control or some other error. When the abort threshold is reached, the file server starts to slow down the responses to the problem client in order to reduce the load on the file server.
The throttling behaviour can cause issues especially for the OSX AFS client. When browsing the AFS directory tree, directories with only "lookup" access for the current user may load more slowly because of the throttling. This is because the OSX AFS client sends FetchStatus calls one at a time instead of InlineBulkStatus calls.
Setting the threshold to 0 disables the throttling behavior.
Activates the collection of Rx statistics and allocates memory for their storage. For each connection with a specific UDP port on another machine, a separate record is kept for each type of RPC (FetchFile, GetStatus, and so on) sent or received. To display or otherwise access the records, use the Rx Monitoring API.
Activates the collection of Rx statistics and allocates memory for their storage. A separate record is kept for each type of RPC (FetchFile, GetStatus, and so on) sent or received, aggregated over all connections to other machines. To display or otherwise access the records, use the Rx Monitoring API.
Use syslog instead of the normal logging location for the fileserver process. If provided, log messages are at <loglevel> instead of the default LOG_USER.
Offer the SANEACLS capability for the fileserver. This option is currently unimplemented.
Prints the online help for this command. All other valid options are ignored.
Number of file handles set aside for I/O not in the cache. Defaults to 128.
Maximum number of available file handles.
Number of file handles set aside for I/O in the cache. Defaults to 128.
The number of threads assigned to attach and detach volumes. The default is 1. Warning: many of the I/O parallelism features of Demand-Attach Fileserver are turned off when the number of volume attach threads is only 1.
This option is only meaningful for a file server built with pthreads support.
Specifies the percentage of each AFS server partition that the AIX version of the File Server creates as a reserve. Specify an integer value between
30; the default is 8%. A value of
0 means that the partition can become completely full, which can have serious negative consequences. This option is not supported on platforms other than AIX.
Setting this option to N means that if any clients are reading from a volume when we want to offline that volume (for example, as part of releasing a volume), we will wait N seconds for the clients' request to finish. If the clients' requests have not finished, we will then interrupt the client requests and send an error to those clients, allowing the volume to go offline.
If a client is interrupted, from the client's point of view, it will appear as if they had accessed the volume after it had gone offline. For RO volumes, this mean the client should fail-over to other valid RO sites for that volume. This option may speed up volume releases if volumes are being accessed by clients that have slow or unreliable network connections.
Setting this option to
0 means to interrupt clients immediately if a volume is waiting to go offline. Setting this option to
-1 means to wait forever for client requests to finish. The default value is
This option behaves similarly to -offline-timeout but applies to volumes that are going offline as part of the fileserver shutdown process. If the value specified is N, we will interrupt any clients reading from volumes after N seconds have passed since we first needed to wait for a volume to offline during the shutdown process.
Setting this option to
0 means to interrupt all clients reading from volumes immediately during the shutdown process. Setting this option to
-1 means to wait forever for client requests to finish during the shutdown process.
If -offline-timeout is specified, the default value of -offline-shutdown-timeout is the value specified for -offline-timeout. Otherwise, the default value is
This option changes how hard the fileserver tries to ensure that data written to volumes actually hits the physical disk.
Normally, when the fileserver writes to disk, the underlying filesystem or Operating System may delay writes from actually going to disk, and reorder which writes hit the disk first. So, during an unclean shutdown of the machine (if the power goes out, or the machine crashes, etc), file data may become lost that the server previously told clients was already successfully written.
To try to mitigate this, the fileserver will try to "sync" file data to the physical disk at numerous points during various I/O. However, this can result in significantly reduced performance. Depending on the usage patterns, this may or may not be acceptable. This option dictates specifically what the fileserver does when it wants to perform a "sync".
There are several options; pass one of these as the argument to -sync. The default is
This causes a sync operation to always sync immediately and synchronously. This is the slowest option that provides the greatest protection against data loss in the event of a crash.
This causes a sync to do nothing immediately, but causes the relevant file to be flagged as potentially needing a sync. When a volume is detached, volume metadata files flaged for synced are synced, as well as data files that have been accessed recently. Events that cause a volume to detach include: performing volume operations (dump, restore, clone, etc), a clean shutdown of the fileserver, or during DAFS "soft detachment".
Effectively this option is the same as
never while a volume is attached and actively being used, but if a volume is detached, there is an additional guarantee for the data's consistency.
This causes all syncs to never do anything. This is the fastest option, with the weakest guarantees for data consistency.
Depending on the underlying filesystem and Operating System, there may be guarantees that any data written to disk will hit the physical media after a certain amount of time. For example, Linux's pdflush process usually makes this guarantee, and ext3 can make certain various consistency guarantees according to the options given. ZFS on Solaris can also provide similar guarantees, as can various other platforms and filesystems. Consult the documentation for your platform if you are unsure.
Which option you choose is not an easy decision to make. Various developers and experts sometimes disagree on which option is the most reasonable, and it may depend on the specific scenario and workload involved. Some argue that the
always option does not provide significantly greater guarantees over any other option, whereas others argue that choosing anything besides the
always option allows for an unacceptable risk of data loss. This may depend on your usage patterns, your platform and filesystem, and who you talk to about this topic.
Sets the file to use for server logging. If logfile is not specified and no other logging options are supplied, this will be /var/log/yfs/FileLog. Note that this option is intended for debugging and testing purposes. Changing the location of the log file from the command line may result in undesirable interactions with tools such as bos.
Sets an alternate location for the configuration file that will be parsed for configuration options for this service. If this option is not specified, /etc/yfs/server/yfs-server.conf will be used.
Specifies the acceptable security class and level combinations as a list of colon-separated pairs.
The following classes are recognized: rxnull, rxkad, yfs-rxgk
The following levels are recognized: clear, auth, crypt
For example, to enforce that all connections use the yfs-rxgk class with a minimum level of auth: -security yfs-rxgk:auth yfs-rxgk:crypt
When starting up the fileserver, don't reload any state that was previously saved to disk. The default is to restore callback state when the fileserver restarts.
The log(2) number of of volume hash buckets. Default is 8 (i.e., by default, there are 2^8 = 256 volume hash buckets). The minimum that can be specified is 6 (64 hash buckets). The maximum that can be specified is 28 (268435456 buckets).
This option completely disables the VLRU mechanism, which means volumes will never "soft detach". The use of this option is only intended for debugging use or if you find a serious bug in the VLRU mechanism you wish to work around.
The number of minutes of inactivity before a volume is eligible for soft detachment. Default is 120 minutes.
The number of seconds between VLRU candidate queue scan. The default is 120 seconds.
The maximum number of volumes which can be soft detached in a single pass of the scanner. Default is 8 volumes.
This option causes the fileserver to bypass the normal safety check when attaching volumes that checks the inUse field in the volume header. With this option, volumes that were in use at the time of an unclean shutdown will not be salvaged immediately the next time they are accessed, and thus risk (possibly silent and/or irrevocable) corruption. Volumes will still be salvaged when an internal inconsistency is detected or other cases where a salvage would normally occur.
Due to the increased risk of data corruption, the use of this flag is strongly discouraged. Only use it if you really know what you are doing.
The following bos create command creates a dafs process on the file server machine
fs2.example.com that allows volumes to exceed their quota by 10%. Type the command on a single line:
% bos create -server fs2.example.com -instance dafs -type dafs \ -cmd "/usr/libexec/yfs/fileserver -pctspare 10" \ /usr/libexec/yfs/volserver \ /usr/libexec/yfs/salvageserver \ /usr/libexec/yfs/salvager
Sending process signals to the File Server Process can change its behavior in the following ways:
Process Signal OS Result --------------------------------------------------------------------- File Server XCPU Unix Prints a list of client IP Addresses. File Server USR2 Windows Prints a list of client IP Addresses. File Server POLL HPUX Prints a list of client IP Addresses. Any server TSTP Any Increases Debug level by a power of 5 -- 1,5,25,125, etc. This has the same effect as the -d XXX command-line option. Any Server WINCH Any Resets Debug level to 0 Any Server HUP Any Force log file to be reopened. File Server TERM Any Run minor instrumentation over the list of descriptors. Other Servers TERM Any Causes the process to quit. File Server QUIT Any Causes the File Server to Quit. Bos Server knows this.
The basic metric of whether an AFS file server is doing well is the number of connections waiting for a thread, which can be found by running the following command:
% rxdebug <server> | grep waiting_for | wc -l
Each line returned by
rxdebug that contains the text "waiting_for" represents a connection that's waiting for a file server thread.
If the blocked connection count is ever above 0, the server is having problems replying to clients in a timely fashion. If it gets above 10, roughly, there will be noticeable slowness by the user. The total number of connections is a mostly irrelevant number that goes essentially monotonically for as long as the server has been running and then goes back down to zero when it's restarted.
The most common cause of blocked connections rising on a server is some process somewhere performing an abnormal number of accesses to that server and its volumes. If multiple servers have a blocked connection count, the most likely explanation is that there is a volume replicated between those servers that is absorbing an abnormally high access rate.
To get an access count on all the volumes on a server, run:
% vos listvol <server> -long
and save the output in a file. The results will look like a bunch of vos examine output for each volume on the server. Look for lines like:
40065 accesses in the past day (i.e., vnode references)
and look for volumes with an abnormally high number of accesses. Anything over 10,000 is fairly high, but some volumes like root.cell and other volumes close to the root of the cell will have that many hits routinely. Anything over 100,000 is generally abnormally high. The count resets about once a day.
Another approach that can be used to narrow the possibilities for a replicated volume, when multiple servers are having trouble, is to find all replicated volumes for that server. Run:
% vos listvldb -server <server>
where <server> is one of the servers having problems to refresh the VLDB cache, and then run:
% vos listvldb -server <server> -part <partition>
to get a list of all volumes on that server and partition, including every other server with replicas.
Once the volume causing the problem has been identified, the best way to deal with the problem is to move that volume to another server with a low load or to stop any runaway programs that are accessing that volume unnecessarily. Often the volume will be enough information to tell what's going on.
If you still need additional information about who's hitting that server, sometimes you can guess at that information from the failed callbacks in the FileLog log in /var/log/afs on the server, or from the output of:
% /usr/sbin/rxdebug <server> -rxstats
but the best way is to turn on debugging output from the file server. (Warning: This generates a lot of output into FileLog on the AFS server.) To do this, log on to the AFS server, find the PID of the fileserver process, and do:
kill -TSTP <pid>
where <pid> is the PID of the file server process. This will raise the debugging level so that you'll start seeing what people are actually doing on the server. You can do this up to three more times to get even more output if needed. To reset the debugging level back to normal, use (The following command will NOT terminate the file server):
kill -WINCH <pid>
The debugging setting on the File Server should be reset back to normal when debugging is no longer needed. Otherwise, the AFS server may well fill its disks with debugging output.
The FileLog can be restarted by renaming the existing file and then executing the command:
kill -HUP <pid>
This will force the fileserver process to close and reopen the FileLog.
The lines of the debugging output that are most useful for debugging load problems are:
SAFS_FetchStatus, Fid = 2003828163.77154.82248, Host 184.108.40.206 SRXAFS_FetchData, Fid = 2003828163.77154.82248
(The example above is partly truncated to highlight the interesting information). The Fid identifies the volume and inode within the volume; the volume is the first long number. So, for example, this was:
% vos examine 2003828163 pubsw.matlab61 2003828163 RW 1040060 K On-line afssvr5.Stanford.EDU /vicepa RWrite 2003828163 ROnly 2003828164 Backup 2003828165 MaxQuota 3000000 K Creation Mon Aug 6 16:40:55 2001 Last Update Tue Jul 30 19:00:25 2002 86181 accesses in the past day (i.e., vnode references) RWrite: 2003828163 ROnly: 2003828164 Backup: 2003828165 number of sites -> 3 server afssvr5.Stanford.EDU partition /vicepa RW Site server afssvr11.Stanford.EDU partition /vicepd RO Site server afssvr5.Stanford.EDU partition /vicepa RO Site
and from the Host information one can tell what system is accessing that volume.
Note that the output of vos_examine(1) also includes the access count, so once the problem has been identified, vos examine can be used to see if the access count is still increasing. Also remember that you can run vos examine on the read-only replica (e.g., pubsw.matlab61.readonly) to see the access counts on the read-only replica on all of the servers that it's located on.
The issuer must be logged in as the superuser
root on a file server machine to issue the command at a command shell prompt. It is conventional instead to create and start the process by issuing the bos create command.
BosConfig(5), FileLog(5), bos_create(8), bos_getlog(8), fs_setacl(1), msgget(2), msgrcv(2), salvager(8), volserver(8), vos_examine(1)
IBM Corporation 2000. http://www.ibm.com/ All Rights Reserved.
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